易幟 - 1949國府海軍倒戈紀事

A Chronicle of the Defection of Kuomintang's Navy in 1949
易幟 - 1949國府海軍倒戈紀事

A Chronicle of the Defection of Kuomintang's Navy in 1949

中文 80' , 2013
Chinese 80’ , 2013
節目介紹 / Introduction
1949年,國共內戰末期,國府陸軍節節敗退。當時共軍尚未建制海軍,蔣介石寄望靠海軍扳回一城。未料,從2月到12月間,卻密集發生近百艘國府海軍艦艇,直駛解放軍駐地港口,回歸大陸改掛紅色五星旗的事件。其中又以「重慶艦」與「長治艦」最具代表性。



「重慶艦」是中國最大的巡洋艦,也是當時中國海軍裝備最新、火力最強的戰鬥艦。艦上近六百名官兵,皆是國府特別送往英國海軍受訓兩年的菁英,返回國府後曾被蔣介石調去東北支援攻打解放軍。但之後在27名士兵的策劃下,全艦駛往煙台成為解放軍的一員,被蔣介石視為奇恥大辱,並以輪番的戰機轟炸,最後將它擊沉。而在「重慶艦」易幟半年後,當時中國第二大的「長治艦」,也傳出,全艦11名軍官皆遭擊斃,駛進吳淞口向解放軍投誠。



這兩艘軍艦「改變身分」的事件,除了顯示國共雙方情報攻防角力,讓當時原本沒有海軍的解放軍部隊,從此有了優秀的海軍人才,並完成海軍編制。這也突顯出蔣介石對所屬的海軍掌控能力薄弱,影響到後來蔣介石對閩系海軍趕盡殺絕,掀起一波海軍的白色恐怖。本節目將揭開國府艦艇易幟祕辛,解開蔣介石和中國海軍的恩怨內幕。





During the late stage of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the army of the Kuomintang had been losing ground steadily in the battle against the Communists. Owing to the fact that the Communists had not formed its own navy, Chiang Kai-shek planned to rely on the navy of Kuomintang to bounce back. However, there were frequent occurrences of the Kuomintang’s naval ships surrendering to the Communists from February to December that year. “Chung King Cruiser” and “Chang Zhi Cruiser” were the most significant ones among the naval ships that turned their coats.



“Chung King Cruiser” was China’s biggest cruiser of that time fitted with the most advanced equipment and weapons. Its crew consisted of over 600 elite youths that were sent to England for a 2-year training by the Kuomintang before returning to fight the People’s Liberation Army in Northeast China. Nonetheless, led by 27 soldiers among them, the entire crew sailed to Port of Yantai to join the Communists. Chiang Kai-shek who was severely humiliated by the defection ordered to bomb the cruiser and eventually sank it.  Half a year later, “Chang Zhi Cruiser” also surrendered to the Communists followed by a bloodshed that killed all 11 soldiers on the ship.



Not only had these two incidents of the naval ships turning their coats reflected the battle between the two parties by using military intelligence, they also allowed the Communists’ People’s Liberation Army which originally do not have a navy to complete its navy formation with the defected crews. Moreover, the incidents also showed Chiang Kai-shek’s lack of control towards the navy under his ruling, causing a “white terror” inside the navy subsequently.  The programme reveals the untold facts behind the defection of Kuomintang’s naval ships as well as the ties between Chiang Kai-shek and the People's Liberation Army Navy.